The experiences of people of East Asian descent in the region certainly bear out the claim. The war and its aftermath were pivotal in their lives, particularly regarding their status as immigrants to and citizens of the United States. The clearest impact, of course, was the wartime internment of Japanese and Japanese Americans, by which more than one hundred thousand people—most of whom were American citizens—were imprisoned on the basis of race as well as geography, since only those people of Japanese descent on the west coast were incarcerated.
Education under the East India Company Originally the British went to India as tradesmen, but gradually they became the rulers of the country. Gradually during the 18th century the pendulum swung from commerce to administration. In spite of this, the company did not recognize the promotion of education among the people of India as a part of its duty or obligation.
For a long time the British at home were greatly opposed to any system of public instruction for the Indians, just as they were for their own people. This encountered the greatest opposition in the council of directors, and it was found necessary to withdraw the clauses. For 20 years thereafter, the ruling authorities in England refused to accept responsibility for the education of Indian people.
A General Committee of Public Instruction, constituted in Calcutta Kolkata instarted its work with an Orientalist policy rather than a Western-oriented one, since the majority of the members were Orientalists.
The money available was spent mainly on the teaching of Sanskrit and Arabic and on the translation of English works into these languages.
Some encouragement was also given to the production of books in English. Meanwhile, a new impetus was given to education from two sources of different character.
The Christian missionaries had started their educational activities as early asupon the arrival of St. Afterward the movement spread throughout the land and exercised a lasting influence on Indian education. It gave a new direction to elementary education through the introduction of instruction at regular and fixed hours, a broad curriculum, and a clear-cut class system.
By printing books in different vernacularsthe missionaries stimulated the development of Indian languages. Besides the missionaries, there were men in Bengal who, though admitting the value of Oriental learning for the advancement of civilization, thought that better things could be achieved through the so-called English education.
In these semirationalists, led by the celebrated reformer Ram Mohun Royfounded the Hindu College in Calcutta, the alumni of which established a large number of English schools all over Bengal.
The demand for English education in Bengal thus preceded by 20 years any government action in that direction. In the meantime the influence of the Orientalists was waning in the General Committee, as younger members with more radical views joined it. They challenged the policy of patronizing Oriental learning and advocated the need for spreading Western knowledge through the medium of English.
Thus arose the controversy as to whether educational grants should be used to promote Oriental learning or Western knowledge. His recommendations were accepted by Lord William Bentinckthe governor-general. The decision was announced on March 7,in a brief resolution that determined the character of higher education in India for the ensuing century.
Although the schools for Oriental learning were maintained for some years, the translation of English books into Sanskrit and Arabic was immediately discontinued. It should be noted, however, that primary education did not attract any attention at all.
The first was the Freedom of Press Actwhich encouraged the printing and publication of books and made English books available at low cost.
Two years later, Persian was abolished as the language of record and the courts to the dismay of the Muslims and was replaced by English and Indian languages in higher and lower courts, respectively.
Finally, Lord Hardinge, as governor-general, issued a resolution on October 10,declaring that for all government appointments preference would be given to the knowledge of English. These measures strengthened the position of English in India, and the lingering prejudices against learning English vanished forever.
Although English education held its ground in Bengal, the Bengal government did not neglect vernacular education altogether. Moreover, in Bombay MumbaiMadras Chennaiand the North-Western Provinces there was as yet little effective demand for English, and the tendency was to lay the main stress on Indian languages.
Bombay adopted the policy of encouraging primary education and spreading Western science and knowledge through the mother tongue. This was done under the able guidance of Mountstuart Elphinstonethen the governor, even though the government also conducted an English school in almost every district in the province.
Between and a bitter controversy arose regarding the language of instruction, but the issue was between the mother tongue and English, and not between a Classical language and English as it was in Bengal. The controversy gathered strength every day, and, in those days of centralization, the matter had to be referred to the Bengal government, which advised the Bombay government to concentrate its attention on English education alone, thus throttling the growth of education through the mother tongue in Bombay.
Meanwhile, the Madras government was biding its time, leaving the field of positive effort open to Christian missionaries; as a result of this missionary initiativeEnglish education in the Madras presidency was more extensively imparted than in Bombay.
A laudable experiment in the field of vernacular education was carried out by Lieutenant Governor James Thomason in the North-Western Provinces. For the maintenance of these schools the village landholders agreed to contribute at the rate of 1 percent of their land income.
The experiment proved successful, and in 10 years Thomason opened schools and provided elementary education for 23, children. The newly established universities did not initially undertake any teaching responsibilities but were merely examining bodies.
Their expenses were confined to administration and could be met from the fees paid by the candidates for their degrees and certificates. Although the establishment of the universities did result in a rapid expansion of college education and although the products of the new learning displayed keen scholarship, the value of learning nevertheless soon decayed.Tony Cartalucci - Just a Lousy Journalist?.
18 th April London. Tony Cartalucci. Tony Cartalucci has written prolifically on the political turmoil in Thailand.
His writing focuses on the International dimension; the foreign interference in Thailand. The one process ongoing that will take millions of years to correct is the loss of genetic and species diversity by the destruction of natural habitats.
Preliminary versions of economic research. The Time-Varying Effect of Monetary Policy on Asset Prices. Pascal Paul • Federal Reserve Bank of San FranciscoEmail: [email protected] First online version: November The bombing of Dresden was a British/American aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II in the European caninariojana.com four raids between 13 and 15 February , heavy bombers of the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) .
Identity, trial and retribution: East Asia after World War II A five-year research project will examine East Asia’s emergence and struggle for self-definition after the fall of the Japanese Empire.
East Asia’s understanding of its own past and its internal dynamics remain deeply rooted to the manner in which World War II ended. Education - The spread of Western educational practices to Asian countries: Originally the British went to India as tradesmen, but gradually they became the rulers of the country.
On Dec. 31, , the East India Company was established, and, like all commercial bodies, its main objective was trade. Gradually during the 18th century the pendulum swung from commerce to administration.