He established himself in Kabul and then pushed steadily southward into India from Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass. Humayun's exile in Persia established diplomatic ties between the Safavid and Mughal Courts, and led to increasing Persian cultural influence in the Mughal Empire.
Neil Davidson The intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th century that became known as the Enlightenment helped a new class to come to power in Europe. Neil Davidson asks why the more advanced civilisations of the Islamic world did not develop a similar movement of their own.
In the current Western controversy over Islam, one theme recurs with increasing predictability. Many writers are prepared to acknowledge Muslim cultural and scientific achievements, but always with the caveat that Islamic civilisation never experienced an equivalent to the Enlightenment.
Salman Rushdie has recently argued that Islam requires "not so much a reformation Muslims have responded in different ways to the claim that their religion has never produced an Enlightenment.
Ziauddin Sardar has criticised it in the New Statesman on two grounds. On the one hand, "It Akbar the great mughul emperor that 'Islam' and 'Enlightenment' have nothing to do with each other - as if the European Enlightenment emerged out of nothing, without appropriating Islamic thought and learning.
This is not, perhaps, the most effective way of highlighting the positive qualities of Islamic thought. Sardar's incoherence is possibly the result of his own critical attitude towards Islamism. More mainstream Muslim thinkers generally take one of two more positions.
The first is that Islam did not require the Enlightenment, because unlike Christianity its tenets do not involve the same conflict between religion and science. As the Egyptian scholar AO Altwaijri has written, "Western enlightenment was completely opposed to religion and it still adopts the same attitude.
Islamic enlightenment, on the contrary, combines belief and science, religion and reason, in a reasonable equilibrium between these components. The second position is that, although the Enlightenment represented progress for the West, it was a means of oppressing the Muslim world.
A Hussain asks, "Given that our people have been victims of these developments, then why should we appreciate them? But this is not the fault of the Enlightenment as such.
Rather, it is an outcome of the failure of Enlightenment ideals to find their realisation in socialism, and the way they have been harnessed instead to the needs of capitalist expansion. In the hands of a resurgent movement of the working class and the oppressed, these ideas can be turned against the warmongers and Islamophobes who falsely claim them as their own.
The history of the Islamic world shows that it also raised many of the themes which later became associated with the Enlightenment, and did so earlier in time. The issue is therefore why the Enlightenment became dominant in the West and not in the Islamic world - or indeed in those other parts of the world, like China, which had previously been materially more advanced than the West.
The comparative basis for the critique of Islam is the Enlightenment that occurred in Europe and North America between the midth and early 19th centuries, but the terms of the argument are changed in relation to Islam.
No one refers to a "Christian Enlightenment". If the Enlightenment is given any specificity at all, it is in relation to individual nations.
Why then is territoriality the basis for discussion of the Enlightenment for the West, but religion for the East?
The assumption is that the Enlightenment, like the Renaissance and Reformation before it, emerged out of what is usually called the "Judeo-Christian tradition".
In other words, Christianity was intellectually open and tolerant enough to allow critical thought to emerge, with the result that religion could gradually be superseded, and the separation of church and state brought about.
The implication of course is that Islam has been incapable of allowing the same process to take place. The fate of Bruno who was burned at the stake by the Holy Inquisition or Galileo who was threatened with the same fate for daring to question the doctrines of the Catholic church casts some doubt on the claim that Christianity is intrinsically open to scientific rationality.
At this point the argument usually shifts from Christianity in general to the role of Protestantism in particular or, more narrowly still, that of Calvinism. But this is no more convincing.
Writers as politically different as Antonio Gramsci and Hugh Trevor-Roper have explained that Protestant thought was in many respects a retreat from the intellectual sophistication of late medieval Catholic thought, as characterised by, for example, Erasmus.
Certainly 16th century Geneva and 17th century Edinburgh were not places in which rational speculation was encouraged. The intellectually progressive role of Protestantism lies in the way in which some versions of the faith encouraged congregations to seek the truth in their individual reading of the Bible, rather than from received authority - an approach which could be carried over into other areas of life.Akbar ( A.D.) Akbar, also known as Akbar the Great, ascended the throne of Mughal Empire at the young age of 14 in After the sudden death of his father, Humayun, the new young emperor (Akbar) succeeded to a difficult position.
Akbar, in full Abū al-Fatḥ Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad Akbar, (born October 15?, , Umarkot [now in Sindh province, Pakistan]—died c. October 25, , Agra, India), the greatest of the Mughal emperors of India. He reigned from to and extended Mughal power over most of the Indian subcontinent.
BECK index Mughal Empire Mughal Conquest of India Akbar's Tolerant Empire Jahangir and Shah Jahan Aurangzeb's Intolerant Empire The empire at its greatest extent, in the late 17th and early 18th centuries.
Free glossaries at caninariojana.com English words of Persian origin. In the current Western controversy over Islam, one theme recurs with increasing predictability.
Many writers are prepared to acknowledge Muslim cultural and scientific achievements, but always with the caveat that Islamic civilisation never experienced an equivalent to the Enlightenment.