Thomas Jefferson closely followed European ideas and later incorporated some of the ideals of the Enlightenment into the Declaration of Independence One of his peers, James Madisonincorporated these ideals into the United States Constitution during its framing in Published between and in thirty-five volumes, it was compiled by Diderot, d'Alembert until and a team of scientists and philosophers. It helped spread the ideas of the Enlightenment across Europe and beyond.
For them the new ideas that had been taking shape were not to be left to make their own way as best they could. They were to be actively promoted. Hence the name encyclopaedists for the group as a while.
Simultaneously, in the Catholic Church, or in religion as such, the philosophes found an enemy to be overcome, something which is always helpful to the advancement of causes.
This first phase in the development and spread of enlightenment ideas was optimistic and relatively a-political. If there was to be an object of worship it was Nature.
In these early years Nature was to be seen as by and large beneficent. There was admiration for the English constitution and later for the American colonies in their war of independence. But the philosophes were not averse to absolute monarchs provided those monarchs had the right ideas and carried out reforms which the philosophes approved of.
However, before we come to that, events take a new turn with the arrival in Paris in of the young Jean-Jacques Rousseau. It is as though a s hippy had wandered into a meeting of the Royal Society and been unanimously elected president.
However I only want to make one point about him here. It was Rousseau who did most to politicize the enlightenment project.
From a cause he turned it into a political undertaking with a quasi-religious dynamism. As for the revolution itself and the subsequent Napoleonic period we can see their role in the history of enlightenment thinking as experimental and missionary. Meanwhile the revolutionary and later the Napoleonic armies were carrying the notions of liberty, equality, fraternity and democracy with missionary zeal far and wide across Europe to men and women of every social strata.
But to keep our sense of balance we must remember what I said about this new religion being a Christian heresy and therefore containing Christian components.
Around Pope Pius VII, the Pope who crowned Napoleon emperor and was later imprisoned by him, confirmed that the concepts of liberty, equality and fraternity rightly understood, all have a place in the Christian scheme of things.
A final point about the revolution, before moving on. The libertarian form gives birth to classical liberalism, the egalitarian form to socialism and communism, which are as much products of the enlightenment as the libertarian forms.
Sometimes it will be a cold war, sometimes a hot war. From time to time there will even be truces and temporary mergings of objectives.
But these can never be lasting because the basic principles and aspirations of the members of the two sides are irreconcilable. Which is to have first place? And is utopia to be reached by limiting or enhancing the powers of the state.Defending the Enlightenment with the growing respect for "emancipative values" such as women's equality, free speech, gay rights, and participatory democracy.
but Enlightenment. The Enlightenment was the product of a vast set of cultural and intellectual changes in Europe during the s and s—changes that in turn produced the social values that permitted the Enlightenment to sweep through Europe in the late s and s. Introduction to Sociology.
As such, the ideas of people in hunter-gatherer societies will be different than the ideas of people in feudal societies, which in turn will be different from the ideas of people in capitalist societies. (Spencer ). By parts of society, Spencer was referring to such social institutions as the economy.
The Impact of the Enlightenment on American Constitutional Law Harold J. Berman* I. A HISTORIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION nevertheless attributes many "Enlightenment" characteristics to such seventeenth- that new ideas grow out of old ideas, more or less independently of political, economic, religious, legal, and.
Introduction to the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment, a philosophical movement that dominated in Europe during the 18th century, was centered around the idea that reason is the primary source of authority and legitimacy, and advocated such ideals as liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government, and separation of church and state.
State Of Nature Essay Examples. 1, words. 4 pages. An Introduction to the Enlightenment: The Attempt to Break Free from Old Ideas and Institutions Such as the Catholic Church. 1, words. 4 pages. The Many Philosophers of the Enlightenment Period, an Intellectual Society.