This god or more truely Divell was made armed,standing among flowers. In his right hand he held a staffe having at it a banner wherein was. In his other band he held a paire of ballance, and upon his head was placed a Cocke.
From this discussion, the notion of expected value was introduced. The work done by Fermat and Pascal into the calculus of probabilities laid important groundwork for Leibniz ' formulation of the calculus. The work was unpublished until over a century after his death.
Here, Pascal looked into the issue of discovering truths, arguing that the ideal of such a method would be to found all propositions on already established truths.
At the same time, however, he claimed this was impossible because such established truths would require other truths to back them up—first principles, therefore, cannot be reached. Based on this, Pascal argued that the procedure used in geometry was as perfect as possible, with certain principles assumed and other propositions Blase faire from them.
Nevertheless, there was no way to know the assumed principles to be true.
He distinguished between definitions which are conventional labels defined by the writer and definitions which are Blase faire the language and understood by everyone because they naturally designate their referent.
The second type would be characteristic of the philosophy of essentialism.
Pascal claimed that only definitions of the first type were important to science and mathematics, arguing that those fields should adopt the philosophy of formalism as formulated by Descartes.
In De l'Art de persuader "On the Art of Persuasion"Pascal looked deeper into geometry's axiomatic methodspecifically the question of how people come to be convinced of the axioms upon which later conclusions are based. Pascal agreed with Montaigne that achieving certainty in these axioms and conclusions through human methods is impossible.
He asserted that these principles can be grasped only through intuition, and that this fact underscored the necessity for submission to God in searching out truths. Contributions to the physical sciences An illustration of the apocryphal Pascal's barrel experiment Pascal's work in the fields of the study of hydrodynamics and hydrostatics centered on the principles of hydraulic fluids.
His inventions include the hydraulic press using hydraulic pressure to multiply force and the syringe. He proved that hydrostatic pressure depends not on the weight of the fluid but on the elevation difference.
He demonstrated this principle by attaching a thin tube to a barrel full of water and filling the tube with water up to the level of the third floor of a building.
This caused the barrel to leak, in what became known as Pascal's barrel experiment. ByPascal had learned of Evangelista Torricelli 's experimentation with barometers.
Having replicated an experiment that involved placing a tube filled with mercury upside down in a bowl of mercury, Pascal questioned what force kept some mercury in the tube and what filled the space above the mercury in the tube. At the time, most scientists contended that, rather than a vacuumsome invisible matter was present.
This was based on the Aristotelian notion that creation was a thing of substance, whether visible or invisible; and that this substance was forever in motion. Furthermore, "Everything that is in motion must be moved by something," Aristotle declared.
As proof it was pointed out: Light passed through the so-called "vacuum" in the glass tube. Aristotle wrote how everything moved, and must be moved by something.
Therefore, since there had to be an invisible "something" to move the light through the glass tube, there was no vacuum in the tube. Not in the glass tube or anywhere else. Vacuums — the absence of any and everything — were simply an impossibility.
Following more experimentation in this vein, in Pascal produced Experiences nouvelles touchant le vide "New experiments with the vacuum"which detailed basic rules describing to what degree various liquids could be supported by air pressure.
It also provided reasons why it was indeed a vacuum above the column of liquid in a barometer tube.Blaise Pascal (/ p æ ˈ s k æ l, p ɑː ˈ s k ɑː l /; French: [blɛz paskal]; 19 June – 19 August ) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian.
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