Constructivist epistemology Social constructivism holds that truth is constructed by social processes, is historically and culturally specific, and that it is in part shaped through the power struggles within a community. Constructivism views all of our knowledge as "constructed," because it does not reflect any external "transcendent" realities as a pure correspondence theory might hold.
Jul 7th, By Matt Yonke Category: Blog Posts The Catholic Church has stood, since its inception, firmly against the use of any artificial methods of contraception.
In fact, it is the only Christian institution that, as a whole, has held this teaching consistently for all of Christian history.
It can be a difficult issue for pastors to dictate what ought and ought not happen in the bedroom affairs of their parishoners. Tim Challies has also weighed in with a two-part post on contraception here and here. For those unfamiliar with the issue, the pill works by making the womb inhospitable to a pregnancy.
If conception does take place, it becomes very difficult for the brand new baby to attach to the walls deontology vs teleology essay help the uterus and begin its gestation.
In essence, the baby, only a few cells big, would starve to death. There is no solid medical evidence that this does actually happen, but the manufacturers of the pill acknowledge it as a possibility in the instructions that come with the drugs.
But even if the chance is remote, Christians have no place putting the lives of their children in jeopardy and I applaud these Reformed pastors for taking a stand against it for that reason. Thus, Wilson states that a newly married couple avoiding children so they can make more money are in a problematic situation, while the couple with seven kids who are using contraception to postpone a pregnancy for a short time are doing just fine.
This seems to be a pretty common line in Reformed Christianity.
The pill is perhaps to be avoided, but contraception in and of itself is not morally wrong, largely because Scripture does not say it is. If contraception other than the pill is considered wrong by modern Reformed theologians, it is not because of the nature of the act itself, but rather the motivations behind it.
What Does the Scripture Say? Scripture is, of course, notoriously silent on contraception, at least in explicit terms. The go-to passage is the sin of Onan in Genesis 38—the only passage that explicitly mentions contraception.
But I, along with many scholars on both sides of the Tiber, find this passage insufficient for building a case against contraception by itself. But instead of doing that, Onan practiced coitus interruptus and spilled his seed on the ground, thus affording him sexual pleasure and releasing him from the obligation to take care of any children the union might produce.
For this, Onan was struck dead by the Lord. This does seem to be the case and for that reason I think the passage is not capable, on its own, of providing Christians with an air-tight ban on contraception. But, fortunately, the passage is not on its own. But more about Onan in a moment.
What Did the Reformers Say? It should be noted that the Reformers stood united with the rest of the Christian tradition in opposing all forms of contraception.
Indeed, as noted above, no Christian group of any kind approved of contraception till the early 20th century. Calvin had this to say in his commentary on Genesis: It is a horrible thing to pour out seed besides the intercourse of man and woman.
Deliberately avoiding the intercourse, so that the seed drops on the ground, is double horrible.
For this means that one quenches the hope of his family and kills the son, which could be expected, before he is born. This wickedness is now as severely as is possible condemned by the Spirit, through Moses, that Onan, as it were, through a violent and untimely birth, tore away the seed of his brother out the womb, and as cruel as shamefully has thrown on the earth.
Moreover he thus has, as much as was in his power, tried to destroy a part of the human race.The Ethical Theory Of Utilitarianism - The intentions you have behind an action determine whether you perform that action or not.
Initially your intentions are to look at the greater “good” of the action and if that good outweighs the bad then you’ll probably initiate that action. For coherence theories in general, truth requires a proper fit of elements within a whole system.
Very often, though, coherence is taken to imply something more than simple logical consistency; often there is a demand that the propositions in a coherent system lend mutual inferential support to each other.
The Catholic Church has stood, since its inception, firmly against the use of any artificial methods of contraception. In fact, it is the only Christian institution that, as a whole, has held this teaching consistently for all of Christian history.
The Elements of Style: William Strunk, Jr. Asserting that one must first know the rules to break them, this classic reference book is a must-have for any student and conscientious writer.
In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.
The Elements of Style: William Strunk, Jr. Asserting that one must first know the rules to break them, this classic reference book is a must-have .