Education must enable a student to become more efficient, to achieve with increasing ability the genuine goals of his or her life.
Psychology researchers, however, tend to be interested in dimensions that are relatively less determined by genetics—traits that subject more to environmental influences, such as how a person feels, acts, and thinks. Given that the degree of genetic determination appears to vary from one dimension to another e.
For example, Javier has two biological daughters who share the same biological mother. Both are tall, well mannered, and musically inclined.
Despite these similarities, the older child appears socially reserved and quiet, while the younger one, who was born into the same family environment, seems more outgoing.
In addition, one of his children has been diagnosed with a learning disability while the other seems exceptionally well-functioning cognitively. How can these similarities and differences between the two children be explained? One may think, "Well, Javier is tall and he is also a talented musician himself, so these girls must have gotten these 'good genes' from Javier.
And he is quite strict when it comes to disciplining his children, so that explains their good manners. But why is the younger one so sociable—and what about her learning disability? Maybe she hasn't been read to as much as the older one has.
The field of behavioral genetics aims at understanding the observable differences in a wide variety of human characteristics, typically by analyzing the contributions made by heredity and environment in the development of the characteristics in question.
Although the research in behavioral genetics is ideologically and methodologically diverse, it is fair to state that it often helps one theorize how much heredity and environment contribute to an observed outcome, and how various factors may interact with each other to create a particular outcome.
At the root of such research endeavors lies what is called the nature-nurture controversy. The Nature-Nurture Controversy What are the roles of heredity and environment in the development of various human characteristics?
The nature-nurture controversy deals with this perennial question. The works by several early philosophers are often viewed as marking the beginning of this controversy. They therefore took the nativist perspective that humans are born with certain cognitive tendencies.
By contrast, the clean slate view, proposed in by the British philosopher John Lockefocuses instead on the role of the surrounding environment in describing human thoughts.
Locke compared the human mind to a piece of blank paper without any ideas written on it, and he suggested that only from experience do humans draw reason and knowledge. Following these diametrically opposed ideas, scientists have since extensively explored the roles of heredity and environment.
Before describing such efforts in detail, it is useful to define relevant concepts. Nature and Nurture Defined Nature refers to heredity: Heredity may range from genetic predispositions that are specific to each individual and that therefore potentially explain differences in individual characteristics e.
The notion of nature, therefore, refers to the biologically prescribed tendencies and capabilities individuals possess, which may unfold themselves throughout the course of life. Nurture, by contrast, refers to various external or environmental factors to which an individual is exposed from conception to death.
These environmental factors involve several dimensions. For example, they include both physical environments e.
Also, environmental factors vary in their immediacy to the individual; they involve multiple layers of forces, ranging from most immediate e. To complicate matters even further, the factors in each of these layers influence and are influenced by elements within and outside of these layers.
For example, the kind of peers a child is exposed to may depend on his or her parents' view of what ideal playmates are like, the local government 's housing policies, and the history of race relations. What Is the Controversy? Despite its nomenclature, the nature-nurture controversy in its current state is less dichotomous than commonly believed.
In other words, the term "nature-nurture controversy" suggests a polarization of nature and nurture; continuity and interaction, however, more aptly describe the central processes involved in this controversy.
Therefore, it is not about whether either heredity or environment is solely responsible for observed outcomes. Rather, it is more about the extent to which these factors influence human development and the ways in which various factors influence each other.
For example, following the fifteen-person massacre committed by two boys at Columbine High School in Colorado in Aprilthe media were flooded with people offering their interpretations of what drove these high school students to commit this heinous and violent act.
Some were quick to attribute the boys' actions to such environmental factors as inadequate parenting practices in their families and the violence prevalent and even glorified in the American media.
Others, by contrast, were convinced that these boys were mentally ill as defined in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and that their ability to make responsible judgments had been impaired, perhaps due to a chemical imbalance to which they were genetically predisposed.
Which argument is "correct," according to most researchers? Most theorists agree that both nature and nurture are intertwined and influence most aspects of human emotion, behavior, and cognition in some ways.
Classroom disciplinary climate not only affects student outcomes and attainment but is a prominent policy issue in a number of countries and regions (OECD, ). Students’ actions in classrooms and a safe and productive learning environment are important for many schools. In addition to personal factors, a number of organizational, environmental, and societal factors shape the culture of the medical profession and profoundly influence the professionalism of . There is an outside book corner with bean bags and blankets, large wooden blocks for building, play house with kitchen and work bench, prams, bikes and large cars, balls, rackets, a table and chairs to encourage mark making, blackboard with chalk and a variety of playing apparatus’s.
Given the prevailing views in current psychology, most researchers would agree that the violent acts committed by these boys probably stemmed from an unfortunate interaction among various hereditary and environmental factors. Researchers, however, may disagree on 1 the extent to which heredity and environment each influences particular developmental outcomes and 2 the way in which a mixture of hereditary and environmental factors relate to each other.
In other words, the controversy involves the extent of contribution as well as the nature of interaction among a variety of genetic and environmental forces.How do cultures develop?
How does the environment influence culture? In this lesson, we'll examine some of the historical and contemporary approaches to those questions, including environmental. Environmental ethics is the discipline in philosophy that studies the moral relationship of human beings to, and also the value and moral status of, the environment and its non-human contents.
A teacher who builds positive relationships with students decreases the affective filter, or level of discomfort, in the classroom and students perform better. Teachers who make connections between old and new knowledge and tie both into the real world also have students who perform better.
Before you go further Think about the way in which you have organized your classroom (or plan to do so). What factors influenced the “look” of your room? How did you determine the placement of desks, tables, shelves, rugs, computers, learning centers, etc.
There is an outside book corner with bean bags and blankets, large wooden blocks for building, play house with kitchen and work bench, prams, bikes and large cars, balls, rackets, a table and chairs to encourage mark making, blackboard with chalk and a variety of playing apparatus’s.
An extended essay in business and management is a formal essay and, as such, should fully meet the assessment criteria for the organization and formal presentation of an extended essay.
In addition, it.