Flower hayes writing research and the writers

Additional Information In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Eco-Cognitive Research in Writing Studies Kristie Fleckenstein Like a typical first day in any composition class, two students meet and seek to establish shared ground.

Flower hayes writing research and the writers

Next page Writing Prose is connected discourse larger works of language such as stories, papers, articles, or books. It tends to be different for each type of prose.


Newcomer, in an book titled Elements of Rhetoric, listed four categories of prose. Narrative discourse tells a story. It is about people and places and things that happen. Expository discourse explains things. It does not necessarily tell a story.

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Argumentation is also called rhetoric. It is language aimed at convincing, persuading, or making a point. Description is an attempt to "paint a picture" with words. What are four types of prose? Each type of prose has a distinctive set of large scale organizing patterns macrostructure.

Stories narrative prosefor example, tends to contain four distinct stages: The setting specifies time and place, major characters, and important context-setting events. For example, "Once upon a time there was a brave young knight Next the reader learns about the problem also called motive or premise.

This gives the main theme of the story. For example, "A wicked warlock had cast a spell upon the kingdom The bulk of the story consists of complications in attempts to solve the problem. For example, the hero fights the wicked warlock and encounters all sorts of difficulties.

The last part of the story is the resolution. The problem might be resolved in a happy ending "They lived happily ever after".


The story might turn out to be a tragedy the main characters suffer defeat. The story may have a moral: What is the typical structure of a story? Where does most of the entertainment in a story come from, usually?

Most of the entertainment in a story comes from step 3, the complications. The premise of the story step 2 may fade into the background during a series of entertaining complications.

In a very ancient story, Jason and the Argonauts, the pursuit of the Golden Fleece provides the main motive or premise for the story. However, the real story is found in the adventures that Jason and the Argonauts encounter along the way.

That is typical of a hero narrative. Campbell pointed out that hero narratives are found in every culture.

He argued following Carl Jung that the hero was an archetypean ancient pattern that forms part of universal human heritage. The four-part story structure can be diagrammed in a story structure hierarchy.

The top levels of a story structure hierarchy We become familiar with many stories that fit this general scheme. Stereotyped story structures help us do top-down processing, guiding our understanding of the incoming data the words we read.

Consider this story fragment. Once upon a time there was a king who lost his wife.Flower and Hayes argue that the best way to do this is to observe writers in action and because previous work focused in introspective analysis, which is “notoriously inaccurate” ().

*Note from the author: Flower and Hayes do not clarify this point, but from my own background in psychology, I imagine it is because studies have shown.

Bibliography | South African History Online

Flower and Hayes () explain that at the beginning of composing, writers start with defining the rhetorical problem of writing the particular piece of text. With the problem. THE SPIKE. It was late-afternoon.

Forty-nine of us, forty-eight men and one woman, lay on the green waiting for the spike to open. We were too tired to talk much. section provides a snapshot of early cognitive research in writing stud- ies, beginning first with two key cognitive precepts and illustrating each through Linda S.

Flower and John R. Hayes. Flower and Hayes wrote that "Writing is best understood as a set of distinctive thinking processes which writers orchestrate or organize during the act of composing” (pp. ). Understanding process in this way makes one realize how each writer's process is different and how these processes change according to the task at hand.

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flower hayes writing research and the writers

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English | Writing as a (Post)Process