Introduction The main topic of the article is the Western metaphilosophy of the last hundred years or so.
Selected Books on Beauvoir in English 1. Her father, George, whose family had some aristocratic pretensions, had once desired to become an actor but studied law and worked as a civil servant, contenting himself instead with the profession of legal secretary. Despite his love of the theater and literature, as well as his atheismhe remained a staunchly conservative man whose aristocratic proclivities drew him to the extreme right.
Her religious, bourgeois orientation became a source of serious conflict between her and her oldest daughter, Simone.
In addition to her own independent initiative, Beauvoir's intellectual zeal was also nourished by her father who provided her with carefully edited selections from the great works of literature and who encouraged her to read and write from an early age.
His interest in her intellectual development carried through until her adolescence when her future professional carrier, necessitated by the loss of her dowry, came to symbolize his own failure.
Aware that he was unable to provide a dowry for his daughters, Georges' relationship with his intellectually astute eldest became conflicted by both pride and disappointment at her prospects. Beauvoir, on the contrary, always wanted to be a writer and a teacher, rather than a mother and a wife and pursued her studies with vigor.
It was here that she met Elizabeth Mabille Zazawith whom she shared an intimate and profound friendship until Zaza's untimely death in Although the doctor's blamed Zaza's death on meningitis, Beauvoir believed that her beloved friend had died from a broken heart in the midst of a struggle with her family over an arranged marriage.
Zaza's friendship and death haunted Beauvoir for the rest of her life and she often spoke of the intense impact they had on her life and her critique of the rigidity of bourgeois attitudes towards women.
Beauvoir had been a deeply religious child as a result of her education and her mother's training; however, at the age of 14, she had a crisis of faith and decided definitively that there was no God. She remained an atheist until her death.
Her rejection of religion was followed by her decision to pursue and teach philosophy. Only once had she considered marriage to her cousin, Jacques Champigneulle. She never again entertained the possibility of marriage, instead preferring to live the life of an intellectual. She then studied mathematics at the Institut Catholique and literature and languages at the Institut Sainte-Marie, passing exams in for Certificates of Higher Studies in French literature and Latin, before beginning her study of philosophy in For the first time, she found in Sartre an intellect worthy and, as she asserted, in some ways superior to her own-a characterization that has lead to many ungrounded assumptions concerning Beauvoir's lack of philosophical originality.
For the rest of their lives, they were to remain "essential" lovers, while allowing for "contingent" love affairs whenever each desired. Although never marrying despite Sartre's proposal inhaving children together, or even living in the same home, Sartre and Beauvoir remained intellectual and romantic partners until Sartre's death in The liberal intimate arrangement between her and Sartre was extremely progressive for the time and often unfairly tarnished Beauvoir's reputation as a woman intellectual equal to her male counterparts.
Adding to her unique situation with Sartre, Beauvoir had intimate liaisons with both women and men. Some of her more famous relationships included the journalist Jacques Bost, the American author Nelson Algren, and Claude Lanzmann, the maker of the Holocaust documentary, Shoah.
In Rouen she was officially reprimanded for her overt criticisms of woman's situation and her pacifism. Inthe Nazis occupied Paris and inBeauvoir was dismissed from her teaching post by the Nazi government.
As a result of the effects of World War II on Europe, Beauvoir began exploring the problem of the intellectual's social and political engagement with his or her time.
Following a parental complaint made against her for corrupting one of her female students, she was dismissed from teaching again in She was never to return to teaching. Although she loved the classroom environment, Beauvoir had always wanted to be an author from her earliest childhood.
Her collection of short stories on women, Quand prime le spirituel When Things of the Spirit Come First was rejected for publication and not published until many years later This novel, written from to and read by Sartre in manuscript form as he began writing Being and Nothingness successfully gained her public recognition.
The Occupation inaugurated what Beauvoir has called the "moral period" of her literary life. From to she wrote her novel, Le Sang des Autres The Blood of Otherswhich was heralded as one of the most important existential novels of the French Resistance. Although only cursorily involved in the Resistance, Beauvoir's political commitments underwent a progressive development in the 's and 's.
Together with Sartre, Maurice Merleau-Pont y, Raymond Aron and other intellectuals, she helped found the politically non-affiliated, leftist journal, Les Temps Modernes infor which she both edited and contributed articles, including in"Moral Idealism and Political Realism," "Existentialism and Popular Wisdom," and in"Eye for an Eye.
The journal itself and the question of the intellectual's political commitments would become a major theme of her novel, The Mandarins I. The Notion of Atheism - II.
Plato's Classification and the Materialistic Root of Atheism. 1. Plato's Philosophical Reflection on Atheism When bad men combine, the good must associate; else they will fall one by one, an unpitied sacrifice in a contemptible struggle. Simone de Beauvoir (—) Simone de Beauvoir was one of the most preeminent French existentialist philosophers and writers.
Working alongside other famous existentialists such as Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, de Beauvoir produced a rich corpus of writings including works on ethics, feminism, fiction, autobiography, and politics. Contemporary Metaphilosophy.
What is philosophy? What is philosophy for? How should philosophy be done? These are metaphilosophical questions, metaphilosophy being the study of the nature of philosophy.
Existentialism, By Jean Paul Sartre - Good choices can make you succeed in life when a good choice is made a human typically feels good about themselves. The Fall by Camus explores the theme of guilt: the thesis of this philosophical novel in one sentence: we are all responsible for everything. If the plague was focused on the action, the Fall for its analysis of the theme of inaction and its consequences.